By T. Bengerd. MCP Hahnemann University.

A small order propecia 5 mg amex hair loss qsymia, double-blind study reported in the Ameri- can Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1993 sug- Even without taking supplements order propecia 1 mg on line hair loss 101, most women get gests that manganese and calcium may be a potent team about 2. Vegetarians and peo- searchers from the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Re- ple who consume large amounts of whole-grain foods search Center, which is affiliated with the U. Some authorities ment of Agriculture, examined how calcium and man- believe it is better for people to avoid manganese supple- ganese affect menstrual symptoms in women in good ments altogether and increase their intake of foods health. Ten women with normal menstrual cycles were known to contain significant amounts of the mineral. The women received 587 or Manganese-rich foods and drinks include peanuts, 1,336 mg of calcium a day with 1. Other good sources tionnaire during each cycle and the results were ana- include rice, sweet potatoes, spinach, whole wheat lyzed. Getting more calcium improved mood, concentra- bread, and lima, pinto, and navy beans. Meat, poultry, tion, and behavior, and also reduced menstrual pain and fish, and dairy products are considered poor sources. This study ganese for several weeks to help treat muscle sprains or suggests that getting adequate amounts of calcium and strains, but the safety and effectiveness of taking dosages manganese can help to reduce the pain and other symp- this high are unknown. Recent studies indicate that high this theory, a handful of animal studies indicate that levels of manganese alter the blood-brain barrier, lower- manganese may play a role in controlling seizures and ing the iron content of blood plasma while allowing the blood sugar levels. These cases of risk of colon cancer by raising levels of the SOD en- manganese-induced parkinsonism are usually limited to zyme, which has antioxidant effects. People Some people take manganese to help treat muscle who eat a manganese-rich diet are not considered at risk strains or sprains, as well as rheumatoid arthritis, though for these types of side effects. In fact, most foods high in there is no convincing scientific evidence to support manganese are believed to contribute to good health. Theoretically, manganese may act as an anti- inflammatory agent by boosting the activity of SOD. Side effects When taken in recommended dosages, manganese is not Preparations associated with any bothersome or significant side effects. People who take oral contraceptives or antacids age 11 and over, the ESADDI for manganese is 2–5 mg a may require higher intake of manganese. More of the miner- GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1287 Manic depression see Bipolar disorder KEY TERMS. Marigold see Calendula Calcium—A mineral necessary for strong bones and the proper functioning of organs and muscles. Osteoporosis—An age-related disease in which bones become fragile and prone to debilitating Marijuana fractures. Description Pancreas—An organ behind the stomach that pro- Marijuana (marihuana), Cannabis sativa L. The term hashish, is derived from the BOOKS name for the Saracen soldiers, called hashashins, who Murray, Michael T. Indian hemp cal Significance of Reduced Manganese and Zinc Levels grows to a height of about 4 ft (1. The hairy leaves are arranged Loss in Postmenopausal Women Supplemented with Cal- opposite one another on the erect and branching stem. The resinous blossoms have five NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Re- sepals and five petals. Commerce in hemp, which was primarily valued for the Marijuana has been cultivated for thousands of years. By 1621, the British pharmacopoeia is a book containing a list of medicinal were growing cannabis in Virginia where cultivation of drugs, and their descriptions of preparation and use. In 1776, the Declaration of Inde- Cannabis was called a “superior” herb by the Emperor pendence was drafted on hemp paper. Cannabis was recommended as a treat- were advocates of hemp as a valuable cash crop. By period in Egypt, cannabis was used as a treatment for the 1850s, hemp had become the third largest agricultur- sore eyes. Census of that gious ceremonies, and recorded in Sanskrit scriptural year recorded 8,327 hemp plantations, each with 2,000 texts around 1,400 B.

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The effects of this disease can be long-term Preparations and disabling discount propecia 1 mg with visa hair loss kidney failure, unless it is recognized and treated proper- ly with antibiotics order propecia 5 mg with visa hair loss on legs. Description Lycopodium is available at health food and drug Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease, which stores in various potencies in the form of tinctures, means it is delivered from one host to another. It is important, howev- time period, a homeopath or health care practitioner er, to note that neither Bb nor Lyme disease can be trans- should be consulted. In the United States, Lyme disease accounts for more than 90% of all reported vector-borne illnesses. It Side effects is a significant public health problem and continues to be diagnosed in increasing numbers. The Centers for Dis- There are no specific side effects, but individual ag- ease Control and Prevention (CDC) attributes this in- gravations may occur. In addition, some epidemiologists be- lieve that the actual incidence of Lyme disease in the When taking any homeopathic remedy, it is advised United States may be 5–10 times greater than that report- to avoid peppermint products, coffee, or alcohol. The reasons for this difference include products may cause the remedy to be ineffective. Controversy clouds the true incidence of Lyme dis- ease because no test is definitively diagnostic for the dis- Resources ease, and many of its symptoms mimic those of so many BOOKS other diseases. It is caused by an in- fection transmitted by the bite of ticks carrying the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium. The disease is also found in Scandi- be removed before the 24 hours or more of continuous navia, continental Europe, the countries of the former feeding needed to transmit Bb. Soviet Union, Japan, and China; in addition, it is possi- ble that it has spread to Australia. Causes & symptoms The risk for acquiring Lyme disease varies, depend- Lyme disease is a collection of effects caused by Bb. A Once Bb gains entry to the body through a tick bite, it tick passes through three stages of development—larva, can move through the bloodstream quickly. Only 12 nymph, and adult—each of which is dependent on a live hours after entering the bloodstream, Bb can be found in host for food. In the United States, Bb is borne by ticks cerebrospinal fluid (which means it can affect the ner- of several species in the genus Ixodes, which usually vous system). Treating Lyme disease early and thorough- feed on the white-footed mouse and deer (and are often ly is important because Bb can hide for long periods called deer ticks). In the summer, the larval ticks hatch within the body in a clinically latent state. That ability from eggs laid in the ground and feed by attaching them- explains why symptoms can recur in cycles and can flare selves to small animals and birds. It is the next stage—the tant to note, however, that not everyone exposed to Bb nymph—that causes most cases of Lyme disease. Nymphs are very active from spring through early sum- mer, at the height of outdoor activity for most people. Lyme disease is usually described in terms of length Because they are still quite small (less than 2 mm in of infection (time since the person was bitten by a tick length), they are difficult to spot, giving them ample op- infected with Bb) and whether Bb is localized or dissem- portunity to transmit Bb while feeding. Although far inated (spread through the body by fluids and cells carry- more adult ticks than nymphs carry Bb, the adult ticks ing Bb). Furthermore, when and how symptoms of Lyme 1252 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 The first sign of lyme disease is usually an itchy rash around the site of the tick bite. Late disseminated disease and chronic Lyme People who experience recurrent bouts of symptoms disease over time are said to have chronic Lyme disease. Weeks, months, or even years after an untreated tick bite, symptoms can appear in several forms, including: Early localized Lyme disease • fatigue, forgetfulness, confusion, mood swings, irri- The most recognizable indicator of Lyme disease tability, numbness is a rash around the site of the tick bite. Often, the tick • neurologic problems, such as pain (unexplained and not exposure has not been recognized. The rash—erythema usually one-sided but may be on both sides), and a mim- migrans (EM)—generally develops within 3–30 days icking of the inflammation of brain membranes known and usually begins as a round, red patch that expands. The rash may look like a bruise on and other musculoskeletal complaints individuals with dark skin. Of those who develop Less common effects of Lyme disease are heart ab- Lyme disease, about 50% notice the rash; about 50% normalities (such as irregular rhythm or cardiac block) notice flu-like symptoms, including fatigue, and eye abnormalities (such as swelling of the cornea, headache, chills and fever, muscle and joint pain, and tissue, or eye muscles and nerves).

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If two targets appeared — signaling a bimanual trial — the monkey had to move both arms cheap propecia 1mg free shipping hair loss vinegar nutritive rinse cleanser, such that the two cursors were moved into the target circles on the screen buy propecia 1mg low price hair loss cure xa. These structured movements made it possible to study well-controlled bimanual movements of various types. For example, the two monkeys used for the data presented in this section initiated the bimanual movements with average interarm intervals (IAIs) of 16 to 21 msec (SD = 56 to 74 msec) and reached the targets with an average IAI of 5 to 15 msec (SD = 106 to 125 msec). These IAIs are quite short, much shorter than would be required for successful performance of the task, meaning that the monkeys tended, like humans, to synchronize their movements rather than attempting to perform two separate movements. The movements used in the tasks were small (a length of 3 cm for all movement types presented in this section and up to 6 cm in some types of movements for the experiments described in Section 4. The hand trajectories made to a given direction were quite similar for different movement types (but not identical; see Figure 4. Further, video camera observa- tions and electromyographic (EMG) recordings failed to detect consistent variations in postural adjustments during the arm movements. EMGs of muscles on the forearm, the upper arm, the shoulders, and the back were also recorded simultaneously with neuronal activity (selected sessions). Various analyses were carried out in order to detect changes in neuronal activity that could emerge from different patterns of muscle activation. The data discussed in this article were recorded from 3 monkeys and included the activity of more than 438 neurons (232 in M1 and 206 in SMA). To detect evoked activity, we tested the firing rate in a 500-msec period from 100 msec Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC before movement initiation (the average activation onset across responsive units) to 400 msec after movement initiation. The number of units whose activity varied significantly during performance of the task was high. Eighty-one percent (187/232) of the neurons recorded in M1 and 76% (157/206) of the neurons recorded in SMA were significantly modulated during performance of the task, despite the fact that no selection was made on this basis during the recording sessions. The neuron in part A of the figure was strongly modulated during right-handed (contralateral) movements, whereas the neuron in part B was strongly modulated during left-handed (ipsilateral) movements. A simple measure for the arm preference of a single cell is the laterality index: EAcontra − EAipsi Laterality Index = (4. In both recording areas, about one third of the neurons was activated solely during contralateral movements, whereas approximately one fifth of the neurons was only activated ipsilaterally. Analysis of the distribution of laterality indices in the two areas showed only a slight contralateral preference and a tendency for neurons in M1 to be more contralaterally activated than neurons in SMA. However, a detailed χ2 analysis of the results (not shown) revealed no signif- icant differences between M1 and SMA for laterality preferences. It was inactive when the monkey made unimanual movements toward either 45° or 225° (middle and rightmost columns). However, the same neuron was strongly activated when the two arms moved in parallel toward 225° (row b). It was also active, but less so, in another type of bimanual trial where the two arms moved in opposite directions (row c), but did not respond at all during the other bimanual movements (rows a and d). Here, the neuron exhibited the opposite effect: the strong responses during unimanual movements of the contralat- eral arm to 45° disappeared when the same arm moved in a bimanual context with the ipsilateral arm (left column, rows a and c). Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC A Left Arm Right Arm 45 45 50 0 225 225 -700 1000 Time (ms) B 45 45 18 0 225 225 -700 1000 Time (ms) FIGURE 4. Each horizontal line of dots represents a trial; each action potential is represented by a dot. Trials are aligned on the beginning of movement and sorted by reaction time; the line below each plot indicates the range of target appearance times. The peri-event time histograms (PETHs) (filled black histograms above raster display) have a bin width of 2. Many neurons showed bimanual-related activity that was less dramatic than the two examples above. To quantitatively compare evoked activity during bimanual movements to evoked activity during unimanual movements, it is necessary to correctly compare the evoked activity during performance of a given bimanual movement to the unimanually evoked activities. In the task used here, there were four different bimanual movements performed by the monkey — two bimanual parallel movements and two bimanual opposite movements (the four left-hand plots of Figure 4. Copyright © 2005 CRC Press LLC Bimanual Contralateral Ipsilateral → → → → a ← ← ← ← b → ← → ← c ← → ← → 18 sp/s d -750 750 Time (ms) FIGURE 4.

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