By M. Nemrok. Southern Vermont College.

All you can say is what is more probable than not quality clomiphene 50 mg women's health issues in australia, which is also known as a reasonable degree of medical certainty (>50%) generic clomiphene 50 mg free shipping womens health 5 minute breakfast. Plaintiff attorney: Asks, “Are you sure that is all you have to say on the subject? Defending physician: Respond, “That is all that I can think of at the present time. Either he will let you finish your answer, or your lawyer will be able to ask you the question after the plaintiff attorney is finished. Plaintiff’s Goal: To Judge How Effective a Witness You Will Be at Trial How you do at deposition will be factored in as to whether the case may be settled or not. Lawyers can make outrageous claims against physicians in malprac- tice cases. As long as they make it in the setting of a court or deposition, they are immune against claims of defamation. TYPES OF PLAINTIFF ATTORNEYS AT DEPOSITION One author has aptly described plaintiff attorneys as “pals,” “freight trains,” “butterflies,” “time bombs,” or “ignoramuses”(8). Also, attorneys may be casually dressed, joking with each other, often including your lawyer in this banter before the deposition starts. Remember that the deposition is adversarial and that their role is to make you look bad. Do not let the “pal” plaintiff attorney disarm you with his or her friendliness. Freight Train The “freight train” plaintiff attorney will barrel along with rapid-fire questions, trying to make you speak before you think. The best way to handle this type of attorney is to hesitate before answering each question Chapter 5 / Discovery and Deposition 59 and to respond in complete sentences, which will slow down the process and ruin the timing of the plaintiff attorney. Butterfly The “butterfly” plaintiff attorney flips from one line of questioning to another in an attempt to confuse you. The goal of the plaintiff attor- ney is to make you give conflicting testimony. He or she will ask the same question in multiple ways over different points of time in the deposition, hoping for inconsistent answers. Do not worry about the apparent con- fusion in terms of the line of questioning. Concentrate on the questions at hand, and answer in a consistent manner. Time Bomb The “time bomb” plaintiff attorney saves the most difficult questions for the end of the deposition when you are most tired. You can ask for a break if you are tired or if you need to use the restroom. Just make sure that this discussion is out of earshot of the plaintiff attorney. Ignoramus The apparently ignorant plaintiff attorney tries to get you to volunteer information that you otherwise would not. Assume the opposing attor- ney is well-versed in the subject and do not overly educate him or her. OBJECTIONS RAISED DURING DEPOSITION Your attorney can object for many different reasons. Some of these include if the plaintiff attorney has already asked you the same ques- tion multiple times. When your attorney objects, take a second to think about why the objection is occurring. However, do not be overly concerned about the objections so that you lose your concentration. After an objection has been raised, you can still answer the question if your attorney says so. POSTDEPOSITION You will be offered the opportunity to read your deposition and to correct any errors in how the transcriber heard you.

In this example clomiphene 50 mg generic women's health rochester ny, solute transport into the cell the low intracellular concentration of solute effective clomiphene 100mg women's health clinic gympie. The release of solute is driven by the high solute concentration outside compared to may allow the carrier to revert to its original conformation (A) to inside. A, Binding of extracellular solute to the carrier, a mem- begin the cycle again. The throcyte GLUT 1 has an affinity for D-glucose that is about transport systems function until the solute concentrations 2,000-fold greater than the affinity for L-glucose. However, equilibrium is attained much tegral membrane protein that contains 12 membrane-span- faster than with simple diffusion. Equilibrating carrier-mediated transport systems have Equilibrating carrier-mediated transport, like simple several characteristics: diffusion, does not have directional preferences. It func- • They allow the transport of polar (hydrophilic) mole- tions equally well in bringing its specific solutes into or cules at rates much higher than expected from the parti- out of the cell, depending on the concentration gradient. Net movement by equilibrating carrier-mediated trans- • They eventually reach saturation at high substrate con- port ceases once the concentrations inside and outside the centration. AE1 is folded into at least 12 trans- • They show competitive inhibition by molecules with membrane -helices and normally permits the one-for- similar chemical structure. For example, carrier-medi- one exchange of Cl and HCO3 ions across the plasma ated transport of D-glucose occurs at a slower rate when membrane. The direction of ion movement is dependent molecules of D-galactose also are present. This is be- only on the concentration gradients of the transported cause galactose, structurally similar to glucose, competes ions. AE1 has an important role in transporting CO2 from with glucose for the available glucose carrier proteins. The erythrocytes in systemic A specific example of this type of carrier-mediated trans- capillaries pick up CO2 from tissues and convert it to port is the movement of glucose from the blood to the in- HCO3 , which exits the cells via AE1. Most mammalian cells use blood glucose as a throcytes enter pulmonary capillaries, the AE1 allows major source of cellular energy, and glucose is transported plasma HCO3 to enter erythrocytes, where it is con- into cells down its concentration gradient. The transport verted back to CO2 for expiration by the lungs (see process in many cells, such as erythrocytes and the cells of Chapter 21). CHAPTER 2 The Plasma Membrane, Membrane Transport, and the Resting Membrane Potential 25 Facilitated Diffusion Through Ion Channels. In general, ion channels exist either fully 2 such as Na , K , Cl , and Ca , also cross the plasma open or completely closed, and they open and close very membrane faster than would be expected based on their rapidly. The frequency with which a channel opens is vari- partition coefficients in the lipid bilayer. An ion’s electrical able, and the time the channel remains open (usually a few charge makes it difficult for the ion to move across the lipid milliseconds) is also variable. The rapid movement of ions across the membrane, port across a membrane can be controlled by changing the however, is an aspect of many cell functions. The nerve ac- frequency of a channel opening or by changing the time a tion potential, the contraction of muscle, the pacemaker channel remains open. Ion channels can be classified according to their leave the cell rapidly. This movement occurs through se- gating mechanisms, the signals that make them open or lective ion channels. There are voltage-gated channels and ligand-gated Ion channels are integral proteins spanning the width of channels. Some ion channels are always open and these are the plasma membrane and are normally composed of sev- referred to as nongated channels (see Chapter 3). Certain specific stimuli cause the Voltage-gated ion channels open when the membrane protein subunits to open a gate, creating an aqueous chan- potential changes beyond a certain threshold value. In this way, nels of this type are involved in the conduction of action ions do not need to enter the lipid bilayer to cross the mem- potentials along nerve axons and they include sodium and brane; they are always in an aqueous medium. Voltage-gated ion channels are open, the ions move rapidly from one side of channels are found in many cell types. Specific some charged amino acids located in a membrane-spanning interactions between the ions and the sides of the channel -helical segment of the channel protein are sensitive to produce an extremely rapid rate of ion movement; in fact, the transmembrane potential.

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